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  1. A boiler is a closed vessel where water or other liquid is heated. The fluid will not always boil. (In North America, the word "furnace" is generally used if the purpose is not to boil the fluid.) The heated or vaporized fluid exits the boiler for use in a variety of heating system or procedures applications,[1 - [2 -  including water heating, central heating, boiler-based power era, food preparation, and sanitation.
  3. Materials
  4. The pressure vessel of a boiler is usually made of steel (or alloy steel), or historically of wrought iron. Stainless steel, especially of the austenitic types, is not found in wetted elements of boilers credited to corrosion and stress corrosion breaking.[3 -  However, ferritic stainless steel is often found in superheater sections that will not come in contact with boiling water, and electrically heated stainless shell boilers are allowed under the European "Pressure Equipment Directive" for production of steam for sterilizers and disinfectors.[4 -  
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  6. In live steam models, copper or brass is often used because it is more fabricated in smaller size boilers easily. Historically, copper was often used for fireboxes (especially for steam locomotives), due to its better formability and higher thermal conductivity; however, in newer times, the high price of copper often makes this an uneconomic choice and cheaper substitutes (such as steel) are used instead.
  8. for a lot of the Victorian "age group of steam", the only materials used for boilermaking was the best quality of wrought iron, with assembly by rivetting. This iron was often from specialist ironworks, such as at Cleator Moor (UK), noted for the high quality of their rolled plate and its own suitability for high-reliability use in critical applications, such as high-pressure boilers. In the 20th century, design practice instead moved towards the utilization of metal, which is more powerful and cheaper, with welded building, which is quicker and requires less labour. It should be mentioned, however, that wrought iron boilers corrode significantly slower than their modern-day metal counterparts, and are less susceptible to localized pitting and stress-corrosion. This makes the durability of older wrought-iron boilers considerably superior to those of welded metal boilers.
  10. Cast iron can be utilized for the heating vessel of domestic water heaters. Although such heaters are usually termed "boilers" in some countries, their purpose will be to produce warm water, not steam, and so they run at low pressure and try to avoid boiling. The brittleness of cast iron makes it impractical for high-pressure vapor boilers.
  11. Boiler Repairs West Brompton, World's End, SW10, Boiler Breakdown Emergency Service - Boiler Repairs West Brompton, World's End, SW10, Boiler Breakdown Emergency Service!
  12. Energy
  13. The source of heat for a boiler is combustion of some of several fuels, such as wood, coal, oil, or gas. Electric steam boilers use level of resistance- or immersion-type heating system elements. Nuclear fission is used as a heat source for producing steam also, either straight (BWR) or, in most cases, in specialised temperature exchangers called "vapor generators" (PWR). Warmth recovery vapor generators (HRSGs) use the heat rejected from other procedures such as gas turbine.
  15. Boiler efficiency
  16. there are two solutions to gauge the boiler efficiency 1) direct method 2) indirect method
  18. Direct method -direct method of boiler efficiency test is more useful or more common
  20. boiler efficiency =Q*((Hg-Hf)/q)*(GCV *100 ) Q =Total steam movement Hg= Enthalpy of saturated vapor in k cal/kg Hf =Enthalpy of give food to drinking water in kcal/kg q= quantity of energy use in kg/hr GCV =gross calorific value in kcal/kg like pet coke (8200 kcal/KG)
  22. indirect method -to gauge the boiler efficiency in indirect method, we need a following parameter like
  24. Ultimate analysis of gasoline (H2,S2,S,C moisture constraint, ash constraint)
  25. percentage of O2 or CO2 at flue gas
  26. flue gas temperature at outlet
  27. ambient temperature in deg c and humidity of air in kg/kg
  28. GCV of energy in kcal/kg
  29. ash percentage in combustible fuel
  30. GCV of ash in kcal/kg
  31. Configurations
  32. Boilers can be classified in to the following configurations:
  34. Pot boiler or Haycock boiler/Haystack boiler: a primitive "kettle" in which a fire heats a partially filled water container from below. 18th century Haycock boilers produced and stored large amounts of very low-pressure vapor generally, often barely above that of the atmosphere. These could burn wood or frequently, coal. Efficiency was suprisingly low.
  35. Flued boiler with a couple of large flues-an early type or forerunner of fire-tube boiler.
  37. Diagram of a fire-tube boiler
  38. Fire-tube boiler: Here, drinking water partially fills a boiler barrel with a small volume left above to accommodate the steam (vapor space). This is the type of boiler used in all steam locomotives nearly. Heat source is inside a furnace or firebox that needs to be held permanently surrounded by the water in order to keep the temperature of the heating system surface below the boiling point. The furnace can be situated at one end of a fire-tube which lengthens the path of the hot gases, thus augmenting the heating system surface which may be further increased by making the gases invert direction through a second parallel pipe or a bundle of multiple pipes (two-pass or return flue boiler); alternatively the gases may be taken along the edges and then under the boiler through flues (3-pass boiler). In case of a locomotive-type boiler, a boiler barrel stretches from the firebox and the hot gases pass through a lot of money of fire pipes inside the barrel which greatly increases the heating system surface compared to a single tube and further increases heat transfer. Fire-tube boilers will often have a comparatively low rate of steam creation, but high vapor storage capacity. Fire-tube boilers burn solid fuels mostly, but are readily adaptable to the people of the gas or water variety.
  40. Diagram of the water-tube boiler.
  41. Water-tube boiler: In this type, pipes filled with water are arranged inside a furnace in a number of possible configurations. Often the water tubes connect large drums, the lower ones containing water and the upper ones water and steam; in other situations, such as a mono-tube boiler, water is circulated with a pump through a succession of coils. This kind gives high steam production rates generally, but less storage capacity than the above mentioned. Water pipe boilers can be designed to exploit any high temperature source and are generally preferred in high-pressure applications because the high-pressure drinking water/steam is included within small size pipes which can withstand the pressure with a thinner wall structure.
  42. Flash boiler: A flash boiler is a specialized type of water-tube boiler where pipes are close jointly and water is pumped through them. A flash boiler differs from the kind of mono-tube vapor generator in which the pipe is permanently filled up with water. Super fast boiler, the pipe is kept so hot that water feed is quickly flashed into vapor and superheated. Flash boilers experienced some use in automobiles in the 19th century and this use continued into the early 20th century. .
  44. 1950s design vapor locomotive boiler, from a Victorian Railways J class
  45. Fire-tube boiler with Water-tube firebox. Sometimes the two above types have been mixed in the following manner: the firebox contains an assembly of water tubes, called thermic siphons. The gases then go through a conventional firetube boiler. Water-tube fireboxes were installed in many Hungarian locomotives,[citation needed -  but have met with little success far away.
  46. Sectional boiler. Within a ensemble iron sectional boiler, sometimes called a "pork chop boiler" water is included inside solid iron sections.[citation needed -  These areas are assembled on site to produce the finished boiler.
  47. Safety
  48. See also: Boiler explosion
  49. To define and secure boilers safely, some professional specialized organizations such as the American Society of Mechanical Designers (ASME) develop standards and regulation codes. for instance, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is a typical providing an array of guidelines and directives to ensure compliance of the boilers and other pressure vessels with safety, design and security standards.[5 -  
  51. Historically, boilers were a source of many serious injuries and property destruction due to badly understood engineering principles. Thin and brittle steel shells can rupture, while welded or riveted seams could start poorly, resulting in a violent eruption of the pressurized steam. When water is changed into steam it expands to over 1,000 times its original travels and volume down steam pipes at over 100 kilometres per hour. Because of this, vapor is a great way of moving energy and temperature around a site from a central boiler house to where it is needed, but without the right boiler feed water treatment, a steam-raising vegetable will suffer from size formation and corrosion. At best, this raises energy costs and can lead to poor quality vapor, reduced efficiency, shorter vegetation and unreliable operation. At worst, it can lead to catastrophic failure and loss of life. Collapsed or dislodged boiler tubes can also spray scalding-hot vapor and smoke from the air intake and firing chute, injuring the firemen who insert the coal in to the fireplace chamber. Extremely large boilers providing hundreds of horsepower to use factories can potentially demolish entire buildings.[6 -  
  53. A boiler which has a loss of feed drinking water and is permitted to boil dry out can be extremely dangerous. if nourish drinking water is sent into the unfilled boiler then, the small cascade of incoming drinking water instantly boils on contact with the superheated steel shell and leads to a violent explosion that can't be controlled even by basic safety steam valves. Draining of the boiler can also happen if a leak occurs in the steam supply lines that is larger than the make-up water source could replace. The Hartford Loop was created in 1919 by the Hartford Steam Boiler and Insurance Company as a method to assist in preventing this problem from taking place, and therefore reduce their insurance claims.[7 - [8 -  
  55. Superheated steam boiler
  57. A superheated boiler on the steam locomotive.
  58. Main article: Superheater
  59. Most boilers produce steam to be utilized at saturation temperature; that is, saturated vapor. Superheated steam boilers vaporize water and additional heat the steam in a superheater then. This provides vapor at higher heat range, but can decrease the overall thermal efficiency of the vapor generating herb because the bigger steam temp requires a higher flue gas exhaust temperatures.[citation needed -  There are several ways to circumvent this issue, typically by providing an economizer that heats the give food to drinking water, a combustion air heater in the hot flue gas exhaust route, or both. There are advantages to superheated steam that may, and will often, increase overall efficiency of both vapor generation and its own utilization: benefits in input temperature to a turbine should outweigh any cost in additional boiler complication and expense. There could be practical restrictions in using damp steam also, as entrained condensation droplets will harm turbine blades.
  61. Superheated steam presents unique safety concerns because, if any operational system component fails and allows steam to escape, the temperature and pressure can cause serious, instantaneous injury to anyone in its path. Since the escaping steam will be completely superheated vapor, detection can be difficult, although the intense heat and sound from such a leak clearly indicates its presence.
  63. Superheater operation is similar to that of the coils on an air conditioning unit, although for a different purpose. The vapor piping is directed through the flue gas path in the boiler furnace. The temperature in this field is between 1 typically,300 and 1,600 °C (2,372 and 2,912 °F). Some superheaters are radiant type; that is, they absorb warmth by radiation. Others are convection type, absorbing high temperature from a fluid. Some are a combination of both types. Through either method, the extreme heat in the flue gas path will heat the superheater steam piping and the steam within also. While the temp of the vapor in the superheater goes up, the pressure of the vapor does not and the pressure remains exactly like that of the boiler.[9 -  Almost all steam superheater system designs remove droplets entrained in the steam to avoid damage to the turbine blading and associated piping.
  65. Supercritical steam generator
  67. Boiler for a charged power vegetable.
  68. Main article: Supercritical steam generator
  69. Supercritical steam generators are used for the production of electric power frequently. They operate at supercritical pressure. As opposed to a "subcritical boiler", a supercritical steam generator operates at such a high pressure (over 3,200 psi or 22 MPa) that the physical turbulence that characterizes boiling ceases that occurs; the fluid is liquid nor gas but a super-critical fluid neither. There is no era of vapor bubbles within water, because the pressure is above the critical pressure point at which vapor bubbles can develop. As the liquid expands through the turbine levels, its thermodynamic condition drops below the critical point as it can work turning the turbine which changes the electrical generator from which power is eventually extracted. The liquid at that point may be a mix of steam and liquid droplets as it goes by into the condenser. This leads to less fuel use and therefore less greenhouse gas production slightly. The word "boiler" should not be used for a supercritical pressure vapor generator, as no "boiling" occurs in this device.
  70. Boiler Repairs West Brompton, World's End, SW10, Boiler Breakdown Emergency Service - More info!
  71. Accessories
  72. Boiler fittings and accessories
  73. Pressuretrols to control the steam pressure in the boiler. Boilers generally have 2 or 3 3 pressuretrols: a manual-reset pressuretrol, which functions as a security by setting the upper limit of vapor pressure, the operating pressuretrol, which handles when the boiler fires to maintain pressure, as well as for boilers outfitted with a modulating burner, a modulating pressuretrol which settings the amount of fire.
  74. Basic safety valve: It is utilized to alleviate pressure and stop possible explosion of a boiler.
  75. Water level signals: They show the operator the amount of liquid in the boiler, also called a view glass, water measure or water column.
  76. Bottom blowdown valves: They provide a means for removing solid particulates that condense and rest on underneath of a boiler. As the name indicates, this valve is usually located on the bottom of the boiler, and is sometimes opened to use the pressure in the boiler to press these particulates out.
  77. Continuous blowdown valve: This enables a small quantity of water to flee continuously. Its purpose is to avoid the water in the boiler becoming saturated with dissolved salts. Saturation would business lead to foaming and cause drinking water droplets to be transported over with the vapor - a disorder known as priming. Blowdown is often used to monitor the chemistry of the boiler drinking water also.
  78. Trycock: a kind of valve that is often use to manually check a water level in a tank. Mostly found on a drinking water boiler.
  79. Flash container: High-pressure blowdown enters this vessel where in fact the steam can 'flash' safely and become found in a low-pressure system or be vented to atmosphere while the ambient pressure blowdown flows to drain.
  80. Automatic blowdown/continuous heat recovery system: This technique allows the boiler to blowdown only when makeup water is moving to the boiler, thereby transferring the utmost amount of heat possible from the blowdown to the makeup water. No flash container is generally needed as the blowdown discharged is near to the temperature of the makeup water.
  81. Hand openings: They may be metal plates installed in openings in "header" to permit for inspections & installation of pipes and inspection of internal surfaces.
  82. Vapor drum internals, some screen, scrubber & cans (cyclone separators).
  83. Low-water cutoff: It is a mechanical means (usually a float switch) that is used to turn from the burner or shut down gas to the boiler to avoid it from jogging once the drinking water runs below a certain point. if a boiler is "dry-fired" (burned without water in it) it can cause rupture or catastrophic failure.
  84. Surface blowdown collection: It provides a means for removing foam or other light-weight non-condensible chemicals that have a tendency to float together with the water inside the boiler.
  85. Circulating pump: It is made to circulate drinking water back again to the boiler after they have expelled a few of its heat.
  86. Feedwater check valve or clack valve: A non-return stop valve in the feedwater range. This can be suited to the comparative part of the boiler, below water level just, or to the very best of the boiler.[10 -  
  87. Top feed: In this design for feedwater injection, water is fed to the top of the boiler. This may reduce boiler fatigue caused by thermal stress. By spraying the feedwater over a series of trays the water is quickly heated and this can reduce limescale.
  88. Desuperheater pipes or bundles: Some pipes or bundles of tubes in the water drum or the vapor drum designed to cool superheated vapor, in order to supply auxiliary equipment that will not need, or may be damaged by, dry vapor.
  89. Chemical injection line: A link with add chemicals for controlling feedwater pH.
  90. Steam accessories
  91. Main steam stop valve:
  92. Steam traps:
  93. Main steam stop/check valve: It is used on multiple boiler installations.
  94. Combustion accessories
  95. Fuel oil system:gasoline oil heaters
  96. Gas system:
  97. Coal system:
  98. Soot blower
  99. Other essential items
  100. Pressure gauges:
  101. Feed pumps:
  102. Fusible plug:
  103. Inspectors test pressure measure attachment:
  104. Name dish:
  105. Registration dish:
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